Issues in Maritime Cyber Security

Editors: Dr. Joe DiRenzo III, Dr. Nicole K. Drumhiller, Dr. Fred S. Roberts


The world relies on maritime commerce to move exceptionally large portions of goods, services, and people. Collectively this effort comprises the Maritime Transportation System or MTS. A major component of this daunting multifaceted enterprise are cyber networks, and the infrastructure they control. From the complex programs managing the loading and unloading of containers to waiting trucks, to the global navigation systems onboard vessels, to the hydraulic valves designed to protect spills into waterways that are located and controlled by cyber systems within chemical, water/wastewater, or petroleum plants, the MTS is becoming increasingly automated.

The impact of the cyber element on the international MTS is significant. Yet,

with the clear advantages this brings, come vulnerabilities, and challenges. Researchers have demonstrated that it is possible to remotely take control of a vessel by spoofing its GPS. The news has reported attacks that shut down a floating oil rig by tilting it. The electronic positioning software systems on ships are vulnerable to attacks that could modify les and charts, causing potential for serious damage. The complexity of the problem of making our MTS safe from cyber attack is daunting and the need for all stakeholders in both government (at all levels) and private industry to be involved in cyber security is more significant than ever as the use of the MTS continues to grow.

While there is literature about the maritime transportation system, and about cyber security, to date there is very little literature on this converging area. This pioneering book is beneficial to a variety of audiences, as a text book in courses looking at risk analysis, national security, cyber threats, or

maritime policy; as a source of research problems ranging from the technical area to policy; and for practitioners in government and the private sector interested in a clear explanation of the array of cyber risks and potential cyber-defense issues impacting the maritime community.

About the Editors: Dr. Joe DiRenzo III is a retired Coast Guard Officer. Dr. Nicole K. Drumhiller is the Program Director of Intelligence Studies at American Military University. Dr. Fred S. Roberts is Director of the Department of Homeland Security University Center of Excellence CCICADA, based at Rutgers University.


Release date: July 2017

Pacific Hurtgen: The American Army in Northern Luzon, 1945

by Robert M. Young

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Too often in war many of its campaigns are forgotten. One such forgotten campaign occurred in the Philippines during the last year of World War II. American Army units fought a bitter battle against dug-in, fanatical Japanese soldiers on the Philippine island of Luzon. It was a campaign that need not have happened. American forces throughout the Pacific were on Japan’s doorstep but due to the immense power and personal desires of a singular commander, General Douglas MacArthur, the Philippines would once again become a major theater of the war. It did not bring the defeat of Japan any closer but did leave many thousands of American soldiers dead and tens of thousands wounded. In Europe, the American Army’s most wasteful campaign occurred in the Hurtgen Forest in 1944. Luzon would be the Pacific Hurtgen.

About the Author 
Dr. Robert Young received a B.A. from St. John’s University, an M.A. from Brooklyn College, and a Ph.D in Military History from the C.U.N.Y. Graduate Center. He is currently an Associate Professor at American Military University as well as a New York City High School History teacher. He is the author of numerous articles on World War II and post-Cold War conflicts. A New York City native and United States Army veteran, he currently lives in Long Island with his wife and two children.

 

 

Freemasonry, Politics and Rijeka (Fiume) (1785-1944)

by Ljubinka Toseva Karpowicz

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LJUBINKA TOŠEVA KARPOWICZ studied sociology and later political science at the Faculty of Political Sciences at the University of Belgrade. She received her Ph.D. from the Faculty of Political Sciences at the University of Ljubljana in 1987. She worked as a researcher in various institutes in Yugoslavia and Croatia. Prior to publishing her first book (written with a co-author) in 1990 (Sindikalni pokret u općini Rijeka do 1941. godine (The Union Movement in the Commune of Rijeka Until 1941)), she had published numerous articles concerning the political history of the city of Rijeka in Croatia, Serbia, Italy and Germany.

During her research in the archives of larger cities in various countries (Rijeka, Belgrade, Rome, Budapest and Washington, D.C.), she noted the activities of Masons within various political entities. This gave her the impetus to devote additional research to the empirical and historical analysis of Masonry as a special political group.

The result of her work was the publication in 2007 of her book D’Annunzio u Rijeci—Mitovi, politika i uloga masonerije (D’Annunzio in Rijeka—Myths, Politics and the Role of Masonry) which covers the period 12.IX. 1919 to 12. XI.1920. The book raised great interest and Lj.T. Karpowicz then focused her research over a longer time frame on the same theme.

In addition to the foregoing books, the author also published two additional books: Pravoslavna opština u Rijeci 1720-1868 (The Orthodox Commune in Rijeka 1720 -1868) (published in 2002), and Tajne Opatije—Tajna diplomacija i obavještajne službe u Opatiji 1890-1945 (Secrets of Opatija—Secret Diplomacy and Intelligence Agencies in Opatija 1890-1945). Lj.T. Karpowicz received the Award of the City of Rijeka in 2016, the committee making the award noting that her research had encouraged further investigation into the history of the city of Rijeka and assisted in promoting the reputation of Rijeka in the world.

The book Masonerija, politika i Rijeka (1785-1944) (Freemasonry, Politics and Rijeka (1785-1944) is the result of empirical and historical analysis of the work of Masonry from various states in Rijeka’s corpus separatum, a special political body in Central Europe. It analyzes the work of Austrian, Hungarian, French and Italian Masonry through numerous decades. It focuses on the work of the Hungarian wing of the Rite of Strict Observance, whose members served as Governors of Rijeka; the work of former exiled Hungarian politicians, who were Masons, after their return from Western Europe and their role in the establishment of Austria-Hungary (the Dual Monarchy); and discusses the specifics of Masonic organization in Hungary and its contributions to the development of Hungary’s special type of liberalism.

The greater part of the work concentrates on the efforts of Italian Irredentism in Rijeka in which intellectuals and Masons from Rijeka and Italy played a leading role. Some chapters analyze the work of Italian Masonry during the Fascist era, the military coup against the Free State of Fiume and the attempts to resurrect the Free State after the fall of Fascism. The appendices and supplements contain biographies of Rijeka’s Masons, as well as a report of the American Consul concerning an attack on the Palace of the President of the Free State of Fiume, the proclamation of the Rijeka’s Fascists concerning the attack on the provisional government, and a letter from the Rijeka’s Lodge Sirius to Belgrade’s Pobratim Lodge.

 

 

Nonprofit Organizations and Disaster: Individual, Organizational and Network Approaches to Emergency Management

Edited by Scott Robinson and Haley Murphy

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Disasters have become a more salient part of our life. Events ranging from terrorist attacks to major hurricanes to heatwaves can significantly disrupt our communities and place the most vulnerable among us at risk. The largest of these events—within seeming increasing frequency—test our communities’ capacity to handle these threats. These broad threats call for a broad range of responses—and responding organizations.

This text collects a series of perspectives on the role of charitable and nonprofit organizations in helping our communities address the threats served by natural and man-made disasters. The chapters introduce varying approaches that assess the nature of non-profit organizations responding to disasters from the personal to the systemic level. They leave the reader with an appreciation for the diverse roles that nonprofit organizations play in community disaster preparedness and response along with the challenges they face.

The contributions to this volume were selected by Scott E. Robinson and Haley Murphy from recent scholarship appearing in the academic journal Risk, Hazards, and Crisis in Public Policy. Scott E. Robinson is Professor and Bellmon Chair of Public Service in the Department of Political Science at the University of Oklahoma. Haley Murphy is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Political Science at Oklahoma State University.

One Little Orchid: Mata Hari: A Marginal Voice

by Sanusri Bhattacharya

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“Her father was a subject of the Netherlands, and her mother was a Japanese. He died when she was an infant, and in order to protect her from the dangers which beset a young girl of mixed blood in the East, her mother fled from Java with her when she was three years old, and entered Burma. There, to further protect her, she pledged her to celibacy, and placed her in a Buddhist temple to learn dancing. After a dance at a great Buddhist festival in Burma, when she was almost fourteen years old, she saw a British officer and fell in love with him. It was her first love affair. She managed to escape from the temple and joined him … Finally they married. Two children, a boy and a girl, were born of their union … It is certain that she did not love her husband … The climax came when a maid whom she had beaten and discharged caused one of her gardeners to poison her infant son … She took a revolver, and, walking into the garden where the man was working, shot him dead.”
[“Dutch Dancer Spy.” The Southland Times. New Zealand. November 14, 1917.]

“Parisians have become very suspicious of late, but the surprise was general, nevertheless, when they discovered that their exotic favorite, Mata Hari, the Hindoo dancer, was a German spy. At the age of 17 she married a German who had obtained Dutch nationality in order to mask his spying work. The marriage was rather in the nature of a formal business transaction, but this did not prevent the ex-German officer from brutally ill-treating his young wife, whom he wounded on one occasion by a pistol shot. Nevertheless, she entered into the spy system with zest, became duly registered and paid, amused and delighted Paris for some years with her audacious performances, became acquainted with various highly-paid officials and politicians and found means, it is said, to make known to the Germans some of the most important French plans in the first months of the war, and subsequently informed them accurately of the departure of transports.”
[“Combing Out Hun Spies in France.” The Times. London. February 21, 1918.]

These are examples of wartime propaganda against Mata Hari that had been making the rounds in contemporary print media, which continued even after her execution. Most of these conspicuous falsities had been carefully promulgated by France in order to use her as a scapegoat during the wartime crises. In this book the author has tackled the challenge to expose the malicious intentions of the French government and also to show how Mata Hari had fallen prey to the then misogynic European society.

 

 

Patty Gray’s Journey from Boston to Baltimore: Stories for Children

by Caroline H. Dall

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Caroline Healy Dall (1822-1912) was a Transcendentalist who fought tirelessly for women’s rights. She was born in Boston, Massachusetts, and benefited from her family’s encouragement and funding of her continued education. In 1844, she married a Unitarian minister, Charles Dall. The pair moved to Toronto, but then back to Boston so that Caroline could raise their children while Charles went to Calcutta, India for missionary activities. While Caroline was in Boston, she became very active in the local Women’s Rights movement, and organized the New England Women’s Rights Convention. She worked closely with fellow suffragist Paulina Davis, and on developing a complimentary journal, Una. While she wrote a great deal on a whole variety of topics, she emphasized women’s rights, and transcendentalism.

This particular work is semi-autobiographical, as Dall tells of her experiences growing up during the period of slavery in the United States. Through her stories, some of the horrors of slavery and deeply ingrained racism are revealed.

This new edition is dedicated to the women of All Souls Unitarian Church in Washington.

 

The Old Spanish Missions of California: A Historical and Descriptive Sketch

by Paul Elder

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There were twenty one Spanish missions in California, established between 1769 and 1833 by Catholic priests to spread Christianity. Paul Elder collected various snippets of California history and compiled it in this work with quotes from various primary sources and photographs of numerous missions across the state, which presents a romanticized view of their founding. This work only portrays a partial and sanitized tale of the Spanish missions in California and their impact. The missions relied on agriculture to fund themselves, and sought to convert and colonize the Native people and their land. Multiple rebellions against the missions occurred since the missionaries sought to destroy native culture, and in the process, they transmitted communicable diseases which killed thousands. Missions did not just exist in California, but also Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and Florida.