by International Red Cross Committee
Across India and Burma, England built several camps to house primarily Turkish prisoners of war, but there were also camps for civilians, including for women and children considered to be of ‘enemy nationalities.’ This report by the Red Cross gives a report not only of the conditions, but of the location of each camp and various factors, ranging from altitude and climate to measures of cleanliness and hygiene.
Aside from obvious concerns over imprisoning large swaths of a population and issues of colonialism, the report sheds some light on religious customs, dietary needs and food sources, climate, health, language and local customs of the era.
This new edition is dedicated to the nursing and medical sciences faculty of the American Public University System.
Isa Fyvie Mayo
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Isabella Fyvie Mayo was an incredible woman. Born in 1843 in London, she enjoyed the benefits of schooling and encouragement of her writing. She worked tirelessly to help her family, but for many years she was uncompensated for her writing. Finally, once she was published it was to great acclaim with Occupations of a Retired Life (1868). She wrote numerous books including, Not by Bread Alone (1890) and Other People’s Stairs (1898). Additionally, she wrote for many popular magazines such as the Sunday Magazine, Girls’ Own Paper, and Pa Mall Gazette.Although she often wrote under the pen name, Edward Garrett, she did much to advance women’s issues as an ardent suffragist. She even became the first woman elected to a public office in Aberdeen. She considered herself an ethical anarchist and active antiracist, especially working to provide a safe haven to those from South Asia.
Old Stories & Sayings from India, Ceylon, Burma, and the Near East is a reprinted work and has been manually cleaned of blemishes.
by F. W. Bain
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F.W. Bain translated this work from the original Sanskrit, and offered this as an introduction, “The name of the little Indian gable, here presented to the lover of curiosities in an English dress, is ambiguous. We may translate it indifferently, either: The New Moon in the hair of the God of Gods, or else, She That Reduces the Pride of Gods, Demons, and all the Rest of Creation, that is the Goddess of Beauty and Fortune. To those unfamiliar with the peculiar genius of the Sanskrit language, it might seem singular, that two such different ideas should be expressible by the one and the same word. but it is just in this power of dexterous ambiguity that the beauty of that language lies.”
Francis William Bain was born on April 29, 1863 and lived until March 3, 1940. He enjoyed a wide variety of pursuits in his life, ranging from being an amateur footballer to serving as a professor of history in British India. Yet he considered himself primarily a writer, specializing in fantasy, which he claimed to have translated from Sanskrit. However, these works were not directly taken from Hindu manuscripts, but were rather a mixture of Orientalism and Bain’s interest in fantasy. Although it was revealed that Bain was lying about the origins of such works as In the Great God’s Hair, his readership was unaffected. However, it is important for readers of to know that the views that this work imparts on marriage, love, and religion, are largely those of Bain’s and not a true reflection of Hinduism.
by Sir William Wilson Hunter
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Brian Houghton Hodgson was born on February 1, 1800. His family had troubles financially, but through Hodgson’s aptitude and some family connections, he was able to continue his studies. He was especially gifted in learning languages, namely Bengali, but also Sanskrit and Persian. In 1818, with the British East India Company, Hodgson traveled to India. He held various political posts, but arguable his passion was for research and writing, particularly on Buddhist manuscripts. He was also interested in natural history. Hodgson catalogued numerous species of animals native to the area, including ollectng over 10,000 skins and specimens for the British Museum.
Hodgson was in a long-term relationship with Mehrunnisha, a local Muslim woman, and had two children. They were sent to live in Holland with Hodgson’s sister, Ellen, also known as Fanny, but neither child made it into adulthood. Mehrunnisha died in 1843. Hodgson would marry twice more before dying in London on May 23, 1894.
Editors: Nathan Wuertenberg and William Horne
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Born from the wave of activism that followed the inauguration of President Trump, Demand the Impossible asks scholars what they can do to help solve present-day crises. The twelve essays in this volume draw inspiration from present-day activists. They examine the role of history in shaping ongoing debates over monuments, racism, clean energy, health care, poverty, and the Democratic Party. Together they show the ways that the issues of today are historical expressions of power that continue to shape the present. Adequately addressing them means understanding their origins.
The way our society remembers the past has long served to cement inequality. It is no accident that the ahistorical slogan “make America great again” emerged after decades of income inequality and a generation of funding cuts to higher education. But the movement toward openly addressing injustice and inequality though historical inquiry is growing. Although many historians remain tucked away in ivory towers of their own making, we join a long tradition of activist scholars like W.E.B. Du Bois, C.L.R. James, and C. Vann Woodward, as well as a growing wave of engaged colleagues including Keri Leigh Merritt, who penned the foreword for this volume. As historians and citizens, we feel a responsibility to preserve an authentic vision of the past in a moment riddled with propaganda and lies. In doing so, we hope to help provide a framework to fight the inequities we inherited from prior generations that are repurposed and enshrined by the powerful today.
Nathan Wuertenberg is a doctoral candidate at The George Washington University. He is conducting research for a doctoral dissertation on the 1775 American invasion of Quebec, entitled “Divided We Stand: The American War for Independence, the 1775 Quebec Campaign, and the Rise of Nations in the Twilight of Colonial Empires.” William Horne is a PhD candidate at The George Washington University researching the relationship of race to labor, freedom, and capitalism in post-Civil War Louisiana. His dissertation, “Carceral State: Baton Rouge and its Plantation Environs Across Emancipation,” examines the ways in which white supremacy and capitalism each depended on restricting black freedom in the aftermath of slavery.
by G. T. Bettany
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G. T. (George Thomas) Bettany (1850-1891) was born and educated in England, attending Gonville and Caius College in Cambridge University, studying medicine and the natural sciences. He also attended London University in 1871, taking a degree in geology, and later receiving an MA six years later. He lectured on biology, and botany. Bettany wrote numerous works of history on various subjects, including A Biographical History of Guy’s Hospital (1892), Life of Charles Darwin (1887), and A Sketch of the History of Judaism and Christianity in the Light of Modern Research and Criticism (1892). He also was the English editor of Lippincott’s Monthly Magazine. He died of heart disease at the age of 41.
by Paul Rich
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The Gulf was ruled for a good part of the 19th and 20th centuries from India, and those who served there constituted a unique, small foreign service of their own. Their public (private boarding in American usage) school backgrounds taught them to believe in elitism and snobbery, which they passed on to their sheikhs who became obsessed with their own positions, their wealth, and rituals surrounding their majlis and the pompous titles of Highness and regal monarchy.
As Dr. Rich asks, if the British had come from ordinary schools would they have thought less about elitism and more about providing good education for their charges? Would the sheikhs have paid for education instead of thoroughbred racehorses? Would they still have treated Indians as houseboys?
The Residents did not see any incongruity between their own privileged education, and the lack of attention they paid to often appalling local conditions. If accused of neglect, the colonial rulers could reply that without them the Arabs of the Gulf would have been even worse off.
Dr. Rich’s verdict on the years of British rule is far from favourable. His conclusion is that British achievements were decidedly modest, and that a legacy was left behind which combined the worst features of Indo-British and Arab tradition. The rulers of the Gulf need to take crash courses in history, pluralism and constitutionalism if they are to survive. If the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq had brought the Gulf to its senses, then some good might have come from it. Obviously not. Perhaps the world is reaping the results of British policy that left a system in the Gulf which could not adapt, burdened by frontiers which are now questioned. Stability accompanied by social inertia was what the century and a half of British rule provided.
by C. M. Cursetjee
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In December 1916 the SS Zaiyanni left Bombay bound for the port of Basra, at the head of the Persian Gulf. On board was C. M. Cursetjee, a 69-year-old Oxford-educated Indian Parsee, on his way to see his nephew who was serving in the Indian forces. The boat, carrying much commercial cargo, stopped at all the major ports on the voyage, and the author kept a diary of this remarkable journey upon which this book was based.
The Land of the Date is an exceptional study in that it provides important information in two areas. On the one hand, it furnishes a unique and highly entertaining record of life in the Gulf ports in the heady days of the First World War. Cursetjee brings the feel of the times vividly to life: from the pearl divers of Bahrain to the street traders of the bazaars of Basra, all are discussed and described, often with a dry humor.
The book also, however, serves to bring an Indian perspective to bear on the situation in the Gulf which, considering the large Indian involvement with the Empire’s ventures in the region, has been greatly overlooked. Cursetjee emerges as a stanch imperialist, referring throughout to the greater potential for the future offering to the inhabitants by British rule and fully believing that the Gulf should be British after the war. He also encouraged Indian entrepreneurship in the region, seeing considerable commercial opportunities.
The author clearly foresaw strategic importance of Kuwait, due to its geographical relationship to the prime port of Basra, as well as the power that oil would have in the area’s future. Whilst fully supporting the British in their Middle Eastern endeavors he was tellingly critical of their attitude in occupied areas, “if only British rule were impressed…with less of that overweening self-importance, haughty aloofness and mischief-brewing superciliousness with which the Britisher makes himself obnoxious in many lands.”
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En el siglo XXI el nacionalismo sigue latiendo con fuerza y se expresa de multiples formas ya sea en los sentimientos sociales aparentemente compartidos como en las retoricas literarias, las expresiones artisticas, el marketing turistico y en los proyectos politicos. Pero el nacionalismo contemporaneo se ha transformado tanto como el sistema internacional y como las propias sociedades en su interior. A veces, como una respuesta al nuevo orden internacional, y otras como una propuesta para crear un nuevo orden internacional. Precisamente el objetivo de este libro es plantear los nuevos horizontes del discurso sobre el nacionalismo en la actualidad. Las naciones que componen los BRICS (Brasil, Rusia, India, China y Sudafrica) son los estudios de caso ideales para analizar las transformaciones del nacionalismo a la luz del rol de estas naciones que se asumen como los nuevos protagonistas del siglo XXI. Los capitulos del libro, ademas, fueron escritos por academicos latinoamericanos y suponen una mirada refrescante y propositiva al fenomeno del nacionalismo contemporaneo.
by Alain Bauer
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Few people have the advantages that Alain Bauer possesses in providing an overview of the current world security crisis. He is the ultimate example of “been there, done that”. Welcome in the inner circles of a half dozen countries, his opinions are eagerly sought as the efforts to cope with terrorism at times seem like chasing an escalating train that is all too rapidly pulling away from the station. With a wry humor he has avoided the temptation to say that he told us so, considerably in advance of the current pandemonium. But he did tell us so, and this nuanced consideration of how the current and progressively worsening situation should be viewed at least gives us a start on rethinking the solutions.Those who know him also know that he is an ecumenical and tolerant thinker who balances the demands of protection with the tradition of civil rights. He is not an alarmist but a realist. This essay then provides a trusted overview of a dilemma, how to react to one of the most serious threats to Western democracy in living memory. The French experience has much we can appreciate. It’s examination could not come at a more needed time, and deserves the widest possible circulation and a permanent place is the literature of the unhappy challenges we now face.
President, Policy Studies Organization
Edited by Mohammed M. Aman and Mary Jo Aman
This book presents essays based on papers at the annual Middle East Dialogue held in Washington, D.C. sponsored by the Digest of Middle East Studies (DOMES) and the Policy Studies Organization (PSO), and at the Conference of the Association for Middle Eastern Public Policy and Administration (AMEPPA) held in Ifrane, Morocco. The authors suggest much needed and even radical reforms amidst a series of conflicts that include the standoff between Israel and its Arab neighbors, the role and impact of social media as empowered by technology, and the citizens’ shrill demands for political, economic, and social change. Those interested in crisis management and conflict resolution will find this a must read. The contributors represent an unusually wide variety of political and religious views and include a number who enjoy considerable standing in the Arab world.
“This exceptional work, composed of two volumes, ‘Middle East: Conflicts & Reforms’ and ‘New Directions in the Middle East’ is a magnum opus. In this book, edited by Mohammed M. Aman and Mary Jo Aman, the reader is introduced to a comprehensive and integrated erudite work addressed by a number of distinguished scholars from different disciplines dealing with the Middle East and North Africa, a most sensitive region of the world. The book identifies significant academic and public policy approaches as well as socio-economic, cultural, and political paradigms that bind together such timely topics as democracy, Islam, Islamism, sectarianism, secularism, globalism, modernity, Arab Spring, social justice, social media, leadership, women’s rights, and peace. The book offers a unique and compelling assessment of the future of the Middle East. Objectively written and eloquently presented, this book will enhance the scholarship of the Middle East and assist in the understanding the ability of political systems, government or state and non-government or civil society, in handling and managing current challenges facing the region.”
el-Sayed el-Aswad, Ph.D.
Prof. of Anthropology and Chair of Department of Sociology
College of Humanities and Social Sciences
United Arab Emirates University
“Many books have already been published about the complex nature of the Middle East region and North Africa in the wake of the Uprisings of 2011, however the uniqueness of “New Directions in the Middle East” is its in-depth analytical study of the new conceptual themes which the book argues in a detailed transdisciplinary manner to show-case the overbearing factors that are impacting the MENA region and taking it to new directions such as the ‘public square dialogue’ and the rise of ‘digital democracy’ which is becoming ‘public democracy’ as well as the social media which will all lead to accountability and transparency. The book articulates the new definition of leadership by exploring the many challenges facing the MENA region by addressing the need for adopting the ‘complexity paradigm’ based on realistic solutions to the economic and public policy challenges facing the countries and the people in the region. As a professor of Islamic and Middle East studies, I highly recommend the book as an important scholarly multi-disciplinary narrative for all those who are interested in de-codifying the realities emerging in the new Middle East.”
Ambassador Sallama Shaker, Ph.D.
Full Clinical Professor of Middle East & Islamic Studies
School of Arts and Humanities
Claremont Graduate University