by Grzegorz Nycz
This book discusses most recent developments in the area of US ballistic missile defense with an eye on its battlefield capacities since the Kuwait war, analyzed from the perspective of deterrence postures encompassing the key post-Cold War security challenges (Middle East, Far East, Eastern Europe). The analyzed cases of missile defense engagements included (after the Desert Storm), Operation Iraqi Freedom, Israeli operations against Hamas and Yemen war. The theoretical base of the book relied on the waves of deterrence theory since the early years of the nuclear age through the deployment of thermonuclear warheads, nuclear plenty and the late Cold War revisions of deterrence paradigms.
The main body of the book is exploring the historical and probabilistic evidence on missile defense accuracy in various scenarios of its employment and differing layered short, medium and long range systems of the US counter-ballistic technologies. Historically, the missile defense investments since the early thermonuclear range were challenging the Mutual Assured Destruction paradigm. Notably, after partial marginalization of US long range missile defense concepts of the 1960s, seen as incompatible with 1972 Anti-ballistic missile treaty between the US and USSR, missile defense constructions were reinvigorated through Reagan’s 1983 Strategic Defense Initiative, while post-1976 Patriot tactical air and missile defense were gradually winning arms contracts, as in the post Cold War age the value of extended deterrence grew. New post-Cold War missile defense investments included the Middle Eastern US allies, as well as Japan and South Korea threatened by DPRK nuclear and ballistic experiments. Importantly, the value of extended missile defense engagements became broader visible in the era of New Cold War between Russia and the West, when new Aegis Ashore bases in Romania and Poland proved the theater range missile defense capacity of new NATO members.
Grzegorz Nycz, Ph.D. is adjunct professor at the Pedagogical University of Cracow’s Institute of Political Science. He graduated from Jagiellonian University and Cracow University of Economics. Ryoichi Sasakawa Young Leaders Fellowship Fund Fellow 2007/2008. His research refers to U.S. security and foreign policy, with a special focus on nuclear deterrence and ballistic missile defense postures. His recent publications include monographs on strategic balance and U.S. national security policy and texts in periodicals related to ballistic missile defense investments, as well as U.S. military-political engagements in Eastern Europe, Middle East and East Asia in the time of the “New Cold War” between Russia and the West.
by John Haynes Holmes
John Haynes Holmes was born on November 29, 1879 in Philadelphia, although he spent much of his youth in the Boston area. He grew up within the Unitarian church, and was extremely close to his grandfather, John Haynes. While he initially planned to enter business, as his grandfather did, he ended up graduating from Harvard Divinity School in 1904. He married the same time he graduated from school, and he and his wife, Madeleine Baker, relocated to Dorchester, Massachusetts, for Holmes to take up a position at a church. However he and Madeleine were deeply interested in hymns, and the connection helped Holmes find a new role at the Church of the Messiah in New York City. There Holmes combined his love of religion with a genuine desire to improve society. He delivered and published sermons such as “Christianity and Socialism”, where he found that Socialism was “the religion of Jesus, and of all the great prophets of God who have lived and died for men.”
Holmes went on to help found several powerful organizations seeking justice. In 1908, the Unitarian Fellowship for Social Justice was founded by Holmes and twenty other people. Holmes also helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), and the American branch of the Fellowship of Reconciliation and the War Resistance League.Although some people had rebuked Holmes during World War I when he preached pacifism, he was still very popular and drew people to wherever he preached. His goal was to create a uniquely multicultural and religiously diverse congregation, which he successfully did through The Community Church of New York. Holmes has had a profoundly positive impact, not just on the Unitarian Church, but the fabric of the United States.
by Carita Spencer
In this work, Carita Spencer offers some sketches of her experiences during World War I, along with photos, and even a menu. Spencer offered the work as an American going overseas to document the war, and to report her findings back to the United States. The scenes can be quite graphic, as war is.Spencer catalogued experiences predominantly by Belgian, French and English soldiers, nurses, doctors, Red Cross officials, and others. Unlike many war narratives, which focus solely on combat, Spencer’s narrative discusses the impact on the average citizen as well, noting how young girls were making lace to sell to benefit the soldier, the constant fear of “aero bombs”, and of a town where “nearly everyone…was ill with a touch of asphyxiating gas.” It is the hope of many of these shared recollections that the horrors of war be prevented. Spencer illustrates how deeply the pain, bloodshed and ruin permeate.
This new edition is dedicated to the faculty and students of the American Military University.
by H. Irving Hancock
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Harrie Irving Hancock was born on January 16, 1868 in Massachusetts, passing away on March 12, 1922. Although he was a chemist, he is recognized more for his writing. He was a journalist for several years, working for the Boston Globe, and served as a war correspondent during the Spanish-American War. He specialized in juvenile writing, although he also wrote a bit about sports, and even a series of books about physical fitness. Typically, his stories featured adventures with male hero figures, sometimes set in the past, or often in military combat. He typically wrote under his name, though occasionally used a pseudonym. He is credited with writing dozens of books, along with numerous articles for newspapers and magazines.
Hancock was enamored with Japanese fighting styles, such as Jiu-Jitsu, and not only wrote about it, he practiced the sport. Unfortunately, he was also guilty of using racial stereotypes in his works, particularly against Germans and Chinese characters, as the subtitle of his work illustrates.
by Gertrude Atherton
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Born on October 30, 1857, in San Francisco, Gertrude Franklin Horn Atherton was fortunate enough to be raised by her grandfather after her parents divorced when she was two. Her grandfather was Stephen Franklin, a relative of Benjamin Franklin, was deeply committed to her education. After completing school, she ended up eloping with her mother’s suitor, George H. B. Atherton, and moved to live with him and his family in Fair Oaks, California. Life was difficult, because of the constricting role of womanhood, Atherton found herself in. Sadly, her husband and son died as a result of two different tragedies.
Left alone to care for their daughter, Muriel, Atherton turned to writing. She quickly gained notoriety after her first book, The Randolphs of Redwood: A Romance was published. Her family was very disappointed because of the nature of the publication, so she traveled to New York and Paris, where her writing began to be embraced. She wrote under psuedonyms, including male ones such as Frank Lin, especially early in her career. She was an extraordinarily prolific writer, writing dozens of books in addition to writing for newspapers and magazines, along with plays and films. She was a feminist, and in this work, The White Morning, Atherton imagines the world as led by women.
by John Bigelow Jr.
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The major land campaign of the Spanish-American War of 1898 was the American battle with Spain for the Cuban city of Santiago. Painfully aware of the mistakes made and lives needlessly lost, John Bigelow, Jr, who served as the Captain in the U.S. Calvary, wrote:
“The enlisting, organizing, drilling, and equipping of an army of over two hundred and fifty thousand men, the transportation of about twenty thousand of them to a theatre of war a thousand miles or more distant, and from a temperate to a tropical climate, on less than one month’s notice for preparation, involved endless confusion and an almost total disregard of the rules and precautions of scientific warfare. In this narration I have not sought to give undue prominence to, still less to disguise, any of the consequences of this want of preparation. On the contrary, if what I have to report can have any value, professionally or otherwise, and I hope it will be found to have some, it must consist mainly in the frank disclosure of everything that fell under my personal observation, the recurrence of which our Government in the future should strive to avoid.”
Military historians will find this an unusually candid account of a war that too often is described as an unmitigated success.
by James L. Tryon
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The Report begins with this introduction:
“Next to the National Congresses held in New York and Chicago and the International Congresses held in Chicago and Boston, the New England Peace and Arbitration Congress was the most important gathering of the representatives and friends of the organized peace movement that has been held in this country. It was held under the auspices of the American Peace Society and the Connecticut Peace Society. Its leading features were valuable addresses of a historical and ethical character on the growth and aims of the peace movement and a memorable celebration of the one hundredth anniversary of the birth of Elihu Burritt.”
Burritt was the abolitionist blacksmith, appointed by President Lincoln as consul in Birmingham, England, and possibly the inspiration for Longfellow’s poem The Village Blacksmith. This volume showcases the work of members of various religious, labor organizations, political leaders coming together under the umbrella of world peace. The American Peace Society and the journal World Affairs continue to this day, having been incorporated into the Policy Studies Organization
James L. Tryon was born in 1864 in Massachusetts. He went on to attend Harvard University. He pursued law and divinity, ultimately getting a PhD from Boston University. He had many interests, and juggled several careers at the same time. Among other things, he served as a priest, a reporter, editor, a secretary and director. He became involved with the American Peace Society, and then was involved with the International Peace Congress. He was also a member of the American Political Science Association, American Society of International Law, and the Massachusetts Prison Association. His end goal, which he worked tirelessly for, was to achieve world peace.