This is a book cover in gray, blue and white colors, with a large ship on the cover

Contests of Initiative: Countering China’s Gray Zone Strategy in the East and South China Seas

by Dr. Raymond Kuo


China is engaged in a widespread assertion of sovereignty in the South and East China Seas. It employs a “gray zone” strategy: using coercive but sub-conventional military power to drive off challengers and prevent escalation, while simultaneously seizing territory and asserting maritime control.

Contests of Initiative: Confronting China’s Gray Zone Strategy provides three courses of action for the US and its Asian security partners to preserve regional peace, uphold freedom of the seas, and deter conflict. Building on theories of escalation dominance, Dr. Kuo casts gray zone strategies as “contests of initiative.” States that direct the operational tempo and choice of engagements can exploit gaps in political commitment to seize objectives. Once lost, their opponents face much higher costs to reestablish control.

Using case analysis backed by statistical methods, the three courses of action reach different balances between American leadership, allied costs, and Chinese responses. Ultimately, the book recommends the U.S. employ an “extended deterrence” approach. Washington should foster a regional sovereignty settlement, establish a political-military coordinating institution, and attain dominance in sub-conventional capabilities using unmanned ISR and strike platforms to contest and break Beijing’s control.

The study will be of great value to those in the national security community with responsibility for US policies in East Asia, but it also provides important insights for strategic planners and analysts who will be grappling with the larger strategic dimensions of US-China relations, certain to be the paramount issue in global politics for the foreseeable future.

Dr. Raymond Kuo is an independent political scientist focused on international security and East Asia. In addition to this book, he authored Following the Leader: International Order, Alliance Strategies, and Emulation (Stanford University Press, forthcoming 2021), explaining how military alliance strategies generate international order. Dr. Kuo’s other research has appeared in International Security, the Journal of Conflict Resolution, The National Interest, and The Diplomat, among others.

He previously served in the United Nations, the National Democratic Institute, and the Democratic Progressive Party (Taiwan). Dr. Kuo holds a Ph.D. and M.A. from Princeton University, an M.Sc. from the London School of Economics, and a B.A. from Wesleyan University.

Reports On British Prison-Camps In India And Burma

by International Red Cross Committee


Across India and Burma, England built several camps to house primarily Turkish prisoners of war, but there were also camps for civilians, including for women and children considered to be of ‘enemy nationalities.’ This report by the Red Cross gives a report not only of the conditions, but of the location of each camp and various factors, ranging from altitude and climate to measures of cleanliness and hygiene.

Aside from obvious concerns over imprisoning large swaths of a population and issues of colonialism, the report sheds some light on religious customs, dietary needs and food sources, climate, health, language and local customs of the era.

This new edition is dedicated to the nursing and medical sciences faculty of the American Public University System.

The Forgotten Army: The American Eighth Army in the Southern Philippines 1945

by Robert M. Young


History has produced many famous armies. It has also produced several that few knew even existed. The American Eighth Army of World War II is one such force. They existed for only about 8 months yet saw action throughout the Southwest Pacific, specifically in the Philippines. Under the command of General Robert Eichelberger they conducted operations in the Southern Philippines, on the islands of Panay, Negros, Cebu, and Mindanao, as well as conducting mopping up operations on Leyte and Luzon. It was a small army, never having more than 5 divisions, and other than Mindanao those divisions never fought together. It was also an army that never experienced defeat. They experienced frustration, a tenacious enemy, and at times shortages of troops. Yet victory was at every turn. The war was coming to an end and the Eighth Army played its part by liberating the rest of the Philippines from Japanese control. The atomic bombs made an invasion of Japan unnecessary but the Eighth Army stood ready to take part in what would have been one of history’s largest operations.

About the author:

Dr. Robert Young received a B.A. from St. John’s University, an M.A. from Brooklyn College, and a Ph.D in military History from the C.U.N.Y. Graduate Center. He is currently a Professor of History and Military History at American Military University. He is the author of several books on World War II in the Southwest Pacific Area (SWPA) ad well as numerous articles on World War II and post-World War II conflicts. A New York City native and United States Army veteran, he currently lives in Long Island with his wife and two children.

sepia toned drawing of a desert scene

Vanished Arizona: Recollections of My Army Life

by Martha Summerhayes


Born on October 21, 1844, Martha Summerhayes was raised in Nantucket, Massachusetts. She enjoyed two years abroad in Germany where she studied literature. She returned to the United States, and ultimately married a Civil War veteran, John Wyer Summerhayes, who was still actively serving in the US Army. Vanished Arizona is a work of her recollected memories of traveling with him and his regiment, across the desert, while pregnant, during the ‘Apache Wars.’ Summerhayes gives birth while on this journey and describes the difficulties of childbirth and aftercare in an unforgiving desert, with no real information available.

Summerhayes’ writing is reflective of her white, upper class attitudes, which some readers find reliable, while others find mired in prejudice. Either way, Summerhayes offers a very unique perspective of military life, and paints a very vivid portrayal of the complexities of travel, toilet, food, and medical care during the 1870s. This autobiographical account was published originally in 1908 to many accolades from both civilians and veterans. Summerhayes died on May 12, 1926, and is interred at Arlington National Cemetery with her husband, John.

US Ballistic Missile Defense and Deterrence Postures: The New Cold War Era Perspective on the Wartime Use of Active Missile Defenses

by Grzegorz Nycz


This book discusses most recent developments in the area of US ballistic missile defense with an eye on its battlefield capacities since the Kuwait war, analyzed from the perspective of deterrence postures encompassing the key post-Cold War security challenges (Middle East, Far East, Eastern Europe). The analyzed cases of missile defense engagements included (after the Desert Storm), Operation Iraqi Freedom, Israeli operations against Hamas and Yemen war. The theoretical base of the book relied on the waves of deterrence theory since the early years of the nuclear age through the deployment of thermonuclear warheads, nuclear plenty and the late Cold War revisions of deterrence paradigms.

The main body of the book is exploring the historical and probabilistic evidence on missile defense accuracy in various scenarios of its employment and differing layered short, medium and long range systems of the US counter-ballistic technologies. Historically, the missile defense investments since the early thermonuclear range were challenging the Mutual Assured Destruction paradigm. Notably, after partial marginalization of US long range missile defense concepts of the 1960s, seen as incompatible with 1972 Anti-ballistic missile treaty between the US and USSR, missile defense constructions were reinvigorated through Reagan’s 1983 Strategic Defense Initiative, while post-1976 Patriot tactical air and missile defense were gradually winning arms contracts, as in the post Cold War age the value of extended deterrence grew. New post-Cold War missile defense investments included the Middle Eastern US allies, as well as Japan and South Korea threatened by DPRK nuclear and ballistic experiments. Importantly, the value of extended missile defense engagements became broader visible in the era of New Cold War between Russia and the West, when new Aegis Ashore bases in Romania and Poland proved the theater range missile defense capacity of new NATO members.

Grzegorz Nycz, Ph.D. is adjunct professor at the Pedagogical University of Cracow’s Institute of Political Science. He graduated from Jagiellonian University and Cracow University of Economics. Ryoichi Sasakawa Young Leaders Fellowship Fund Fellow 2007/2008. His research refers to U.S. security and foreign policy, with a special focus on nuclear deterrence and ballistic missile defense postures. His recent publications include monographs on strategic balance and U.S. national security policy and texts in periodicals related to ballistic missile defense investments, as well as U.S. military-political engagements in Eastern Europe, Middle East and East Asia in the time of the “New Cold War” between Russia and the West.


New Wars for Old: Being a Statement of Radical Pacifism in Terms of Force Versus Non-Resistance: with Special Reference to the Facts and Problems of the Great War

by John Haynes Holmes


John Haynes Holmes was born on November 29, 1879 in Philadelphia, although he spent much of his youth in the Boston area. He grew up within the Unitarian church, and was extremely close to his grandfather, John Haynes. While he initially planned to enter business, as his grandfather did, he ended up graduating from Harvard Divinity School in 1904. He married the same time he graduated from school, and he and his wife, Madeleine Baker, relocated to Dorchester, Massachusetts, for Holmes to take up a position at a church. However he and Madeleine were deeply interested in hymns, and the connection helped Holmes find a new role at the Church of the Messiah in New York City. There Holmes combined his love of religion with a genuine desire to improve society. He delivered and published sermons such as “Christianity and Socialism”, where he found that Socialism was “the religion of Jesus, and of all the great prophets of God who have lived and died for men.”

Holmes went on to help found several powerful organizations seeking justice. In 1908, the Unitarian Fellowship for Social Justice was founded by Holmes and twenty other people. Holmes also helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), and the American branch of the Fellowship of Reconciliation and the War Resistance League.Although some people had rebuked Holmes during World War I when he preached pacifism, he was still very popular and drew people to wherever he preached. His goal was to create a uniquely multicultural and religiously diverse congregation, which he successfully did through The Community Church of New York. Holmes has had a profoundly positive impact, not just on the Unitarian Church, but the fabric of the United States.





War Scenes I Shall Never Forget

by Carita Spencer


In this work, Carita Spencer offers some sketches of her experiences during World War I, along with photos, and even a menu. Spencer offered the work as an American going overseas to document the war, and to report her findings back to the United States. The scenes can be quite graphic, as war is.Spencer catalogued experiences predominantly by Belgian, French and English soldiers, nurses, doctors, Red Cross officials, and others. Unlike many war narratives, which focus solely on combat, Spencer’s narrative discusses the impact on the average citizen as well, noting how young girls were making lace to sell to benefit the soldier, the constant fear of “aero bombs”, and of a town where “nearly everyone…was ill with a touch of asphyxiating gas.” It is the hope of many of these shared recollections that the horrors of war be prevented. Spencer illustrates how deeply the pain, bloodshed and ruin permeate.

This new edition is dedicated to the faculty and students of the American Military University.



Dave Darrin and the German Submarines

by H. Irving Hancock

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Harrie Irving Hancock was born on January 16, 1868 in Massachusetts, passing away on March 12, 1922. Although he was a chemist, he is recognized more for his writing. He was a journalist for several years, working for the Boston Globe, and served as a war correspondent during the Spanish-American War. He specialized in juvenile writing, although he also wrote a bit about sports, and even a series of books about physical fitness. Typically, his stories featured adventures with male hero figures, sometimes set in the past, or often in military combat. He typically wrote under his name, though occasionally used a pseudonym. He is credited with writing dozens of books, along with numerous articles for newspapers and magazines.

Hancock was enamored with Japanese fighting styles, such as Jiu-Jitsu, and not only wrote about it, he practiced the sport. Unfortunately, he was also guilty of using racial stereotypes in his works, particularly against Germans and Chinese characters, as the subtitle of his work illustrates.


The White Morning: A Novel of the Power of the German Woman in Wartime

by Gertrude Atherton

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Born on October 30, 1857, in San Francisco, Gertrude Franklin Horn Atherton was fortunate enough to be raised by her grandfather after her parents divorced when she was two. Her grandfather was Stephen Franklin, a relative of Benjamin Franklin, was deeply committed to her education. After completing school, she ended up eloping with her mother’s suitor, George H. B. Atherton, and moved to live with him and his family in Fair Oaks, California. Life was difficult, because of the constricting role of womanhood, Atherton found herself in. Sadly, her husband and son died as a result of two different tragedies.

Left alone to care for their daughter, Muriel, Atherton turned to writing. She quickly gained notoriety after her first book, The Randolphs of Redwood: A Romance was published. Her family was very disappointed because of the nature of the publication, so she traveled to New York and Paris, where her writing began to be embraced. She wrote under psuedonyms, including male ones such as Frank Lin, especially early in her career. She was an extraordinarily prolific writer, writing dozens of books in addition to writing for newspapers and magazines, along with plays and films. She was a feminist, and in this work, The White Morning, Atherton imagines the world as led by women.


Reminiscences of the Santiago Campaign: The Spanish-American War of 1898

by John Bigelow Jr.

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The major land campaign of the Spanish-American War of 1898 was the American battle with Spain for the Cuban city of Santiago. Painfully aware of the mistakes made and lives needlessly lost, John Bigelow, Jr, who served as the Captain in the U.S. Calvary, wrote:

“The enlisting, organizing, drilling, and equipping of an army of over two hundred and fifty thousand men, the transportation of about twenty thousand of them to a theatre of war a thousand miles or more distant, and from a temperate to a tropical climate, on less than one month’s notice for preparation, involved endless confusion and an almost total disregard of the rules and precautions of scientific warfare. In this narration I have not sought to give undue prominence to, still less to disguise, any of the consequences of this want of preparation. On the contrary, if what I have to report can have any value, professionally or otherwise, and I hope it will be found to have some, it must consist mainly in the frank disclosure of everything that fell under my personal observation, the recurrence of which our Government in the future should strive to avoid.”

Military historians will find this an unusually candid account of a war that too often is described as an unmitigated success.


New England Arbitration and Peace Congress: Report of the Proceedings: Hartford and New Britain, Connecticut: May 8 to 11, 1910

by James L. Tryon

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The Report begins with this introduction:
“Next to the National Congresses held in New York and Chicago and the International Congresses held in Chicago and Boston, the New England Peace and Arbitration Congress was the most important gathering of the representatives and friends of the organized peace movement that has been held in this country. It was held under the auspices of the American Peace Society and the Connecticut Peace Society. Its leading features were valuable addresses of a historical and ethical character on the growth and aims of the peace movement and a memorable celebration of the one hundredth anniversary of the birth of Elihu Burritt.”

Burritt was the abolitionist blacksmith, appointed by President Lincoln as consul in Birmingham, England, and possibly the inspiration for Longfellow’s poem The Village Blacksmith. This volume showcases the work of members of various religious, labor organizations, political leaders coming together under the umbrella of world peace. The American Peace Society and the journal World Affairs continue to this day, having been incorporated into the Policy Studies Organization

James L. Tryon was born in 1864 in Massachusetts. He went on to attend Harvard University. He pursued law and divinity, ultimately getting a PhD from Boston University. He had many interests, and juggled several careers at the same time. Among other things, he served as a priest, a reporter, editor, a secretary and director. He became involved with the American Peace Society, and then was involved with the International Peace Congress. He was also a member of the American Political Science Association, American Society of International Law, and the Massachusetts Prison Association. His end goal, which he worked tirelessly for, was to achieve world peace.


Complete Instructive Manual for the Bugle, Trumpet and Drum: Signals and Calls for the US Military Service and Boy Scouts’ Service

by V. F. Safranak

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Drill signals, quicksteps, sound offs, and more are the contents of this manual, which is aimed at those in the armed services, school bands, and scouting. V. F. Safranek gives an extremely detailed account, even covering how to properly tie trumpet cords. The manual does require some working knowledge of how to play the instruments, if only to know the proper sound of each note. It offers a great deal of information on proper hand salutes, gestures, and how to do movements in formation. It includes a basic understanding of how to read a musical chart, how to hold an instrument, and how to care for it.


Joseph Stebbins: A Pioneer at the Outbreak of the Revolution

by George Sheldon

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This is an account of one person’s dilemmas during the American Revolution and its aftermath. Joseph Stebbins was born in 1749. He was thrust into the conflict as captain of a militia company of soldiers from Deerfield, Massachusetts. Many colonists experienced mixed emotions about the war, its need and likelihood of success. This work shows Stebbins as a powerful figure galvanizing support for the Revolutionary War in his community.

After the conclusion of the war, colonists faced another difficult task: contrary opinions about the course of the new nation. Conflicting ideals led to Shays Rebellion as Daniel Shays was joined by thousands of fellow citizens in Western Massachusetts in a fight against excessive taxation. Stebbins opposed Shays Rebellion, and for his support, the Massachusetts government rewarded him by promotion to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel in 1786. The following year, he became a full colonel. Confirmed in his views by the course of history, he died in 1816.


Resilient Hospitals Handbook: Strengthening Healthcare and Public Health Resilience in Advance of a Prolonged and Widespread Power Outage

by Charles “Chuck” Manto, Earl Motzer PhD, James Terbush MD

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A number of high-impact threats to critical infrastructure can result in a regional or nationwide months-long power outage, making it unlikely for timely outside help to arrive. Hospitals are encouraged to gain the capacity to make and store enough power on-site to operate in island mode indefinitely without outside sources of power or fuel and protect on-site capabilities from threats that could impact regional commercial power systems. This handbook outlines challenges and opportunities to solve these problems so hospitals, healthcare facilities, and other resources might become more resilient. From the Second Goal of the 2015 National Space Weather Strategy:
• “Complete an all-hazards power outage response and recovery plan: —for extreme space weather event and the long-term loss of electric power and cascading effects on other critical infrastructure sectors.
• Other low-frequency, high-impact events are also capable of causing long-term power outages on a regional or national scale.
• The plan must include the Whole Community.”

From the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency
• “An electromagnetic (EM) attack (nuclear electromagnetic pulse [EMP] or non-nuclear EMP [e.g., high-power microwave, HPM]) has the potential to degrade or shut down portions of the electric power grid important to DoD.
• Restoring the commercial grid from the still functioning regions may not be possible or could take weeks or months. Significant elements of the DCI require uninterrupted power for prolonged periods to perform time-critical missions (e.g., sites hardened to MIL-STD-188-125-1).
• To ensure these continued operations, DCI sites must be able to function as a microgrid that can operate in both grid-connected and intentional island-mode (grid-isolated).

The Capture and Execution of John Brown: A Tale of Martyrdom

by Elijah Avey

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Slavery was truly an awful institution that, even today in its legacy, continues to plague the United States. During its height, abolitionists “waved the bloody flag” and vigorously protested to end it, though it took plunging the nation into the Civil War to result in it being finally eradicated. One person that took a powerful stand against “the peculiar institution” was John Brown. Though Brown had led forces against pro-slavery opponents earlier, it wasn’t until 1859 when he grabbed the national stage by leading forces, particularly enslaved African Americans, at Harper’s Ferry. The movement was ultimately unsuccessful, and Brown was captured and tried for treason against the Commonwealth of Virginia (before Harper’s Ferry was part of West Virginia). He was hanged despite vocal opposition from his supporters. Yet, his work as an abolitionist created ripples of tension that significantly fueled the drift towards war. This work is written by Elijah Avery, who offers a detailed, eyewitness account of the events, and contextualizes John Brown’s life.

This new edition is dedicated to the efforts of the American Public University System to preserve the artifacts of historic Charles Town in West Virginia with its associations with John Brown.

The Prisoners of 1776: A Relic of the Revolution

by Rev. R. Livesey

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Most of this work is not by Rev. R. Livesey, but rather by Charles Herbert, who was made prisoner by the English during the Revolutionary War. The journal begins around November 15, 1776, shortly after Herbert was captured while on the brigantine, Dolton. While imprisoned, he suffered from smallpox, but recovered and then was sent to Old Mill Prison, located in Plymouth, England, in 1777. He was held there until March 19, 1779, when he was exchanged for English prisoners. Herbert tried to escape many times, and even succeeded once, but he, along with a majority of other prisoners, were recaptured. After his release, Herbert went on to be married to Holly Butler on November 8, 1783, and earned a living as a block-maker, until he died at the age of 49 on September 4, 1808. The journal was written in code and had to be translated. Special Collections at the University of Delaware Library in Newark, Delaware has archival holdings on this work.

Issues in Maritime Cyber Security

Editors: Dr. Joe DiRenzo III, Dr. Nicole K. Drumhiller, Dr. Fred S. Roberts

The world relies on maritime commerce to move exceptionally large portions of goods, services, and people. Collectively this effort comprises the Maritime Transportation System or MTS. A major component of this daunting multifaceted enterprise are cyber networks, and the infrastructure they control. From the complex programs managing the loading and unloading of containers to waiting trucks, to the global navigation systems onboard vessels, to the hydraulic valves designed to protect spills into waterways that are located and controlled by cyber systems within chemical, water/wastewater, or petroleum plants, the MTS is becoming increasingly automated.

The impact of the cyber element on the international MTS is significant. Yet, with the clear advantages this brings, come vulnerabilities, and challenges. Researchers have demonstrated that it is possible to remotely take control of a vessel by spoofing its GPS. The news has reported attacks that shut down a floating oil rig by tilting it. The electronic positioning software systems on ships are vulnerable to attacks that could modify les and charts, causing potential for serious damage. The complexity of the problem of making our MTS safe from cyber attack is daunting and the need for all stakeholders in both government (at all levels) and private industry to be involved in cyber security is more significant than ever as the use of the MTS continues to grow.

While there is literature about the maritime transportation system, and about cyber security, to date there is very little literature on this converging area. This pioneering book is beneficial to a variety of audiences, as a text book in courses looking at risk analysis, national security, cyber threats, or

maritime policy; as a source of research problems ranging from the technical area to policy; and for practitioners in government and the private sector interested in a clear explanation of the array of cyber risks and potential cyber-defense issues impacting the maritime community.

About the Editors: Dr. Joe DiRenzo III is a retired Coast Guard Officer. Dr. Nicole K. Drumhiller is the Program Director of Intelligence Studies at American Military University. Dr. Fred S. Roberts is Director of the Department of Homeland Security University Center of Excellence CCICADA, based at Rutgers University.

Pacific Hurtgen: The American Army in Northern Luzon, 1945

by Robert M. Young

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Too often in war many of its campaigns are forgotten. One such forgotten campaign occurred in the Philippines during the last year of World War II. American Army units fought a bitter battle against dug-in, fanatical Japanese soldiers on the Philippine island of Luzon. It was a campaign that need not have happened. American forces throughout the Pacific were on Japan’s doorstep but due to the immense power and personal desires of a singular commander, General Douglas MacArthur, the Philippines would once again become a major theater of the war. It did not bring the defeat of Japan any closer but did leave many thousands of American soldiers dead and tens of thousands wounded. In Europe, the American Army’s most wasteful campaign occurred in the Hurtgen Forest in 1944. Luzon would be the Pacific Hurtgen.

About the Author 
Dr. Robert Young received a B.A. from St. John’s University, an M.A. from Brooklyn College, and a Ph.D in Military History from the C.U.N.Y. Graduate Center. He is currently an Associate Professor at American Military University as well as a New York City High School History teacher. He is the author of numerous articles on World War II and post-Cold War conflicts. A New York City native and United States Army veteran, he currently lives in Long Island with his wife and two children.

One Little Orchid: Mata Hari: A Marginal Voice

by Sanusri Bhattacharya

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“Her father was a subject of the Netherlands, and her mother was a Japanese. He died when she was an infant, and in order to protect her from the dangers which beset a young girl of mixed blood in the East, her mother fled from Java with her when she was three years old, and entered Burma. There, to further protect her, she pledged her to celibacy, and placed her in a Buddhist temple to learn dancing. After a dance at a great Buddhist festival in Burma, when she was almost fourteen years old, she saw a British officer and fell in love with him. It was her first love affair. She managed to escape from the temple and joined him … Finally they married. Two children, a boy and a girl, were born of their union … It is certain that she did not love her husband … The climax came when a maid whom she had beaten and discharged caused one of her gardeners to poison her infant son … She took a revolver, and, walking into the garden where the man was working, shot him dead.”
[“Dutch Dancer Spy.” The Southland Times. New Zealand. November 14, 1917.]

“Parisians have become very suspicious of late, but the surprise was general, nevertheless, when they discovered that their exotic favorite, Mata Hari, the Hindoo dancer, was a German spy. At the age of 17 she married a German who had obtained Dutch nationality in order to mask his spying work. The marriage was rather in the nature of a formal business transaction, but this did not prevent the ex-German officer from brutally ill-treating his young wife, whom he wounded on one occasion by a pistol shot. Nevertheless, she entered into the spy system with zest, became duly registered and paid, amused and delighted Paris for some years with her audacious performances, became acquainted with various highly-paid officials and politicians and found means, it is said, to make known to the Germans some of the most important French plans in the first months of the war, and subsequently informed them accurately of the departure of transports.”
[“Combing Out Hun Spies in France.” The Times. London. February 21, 1918.]

These are examples of wartime propaganda against Mata Hari that had been making the rounds in contemporary print media, which continued even after her execution. Most of these conspicuous falsities had been carefully promulgated by France in order to use her as a scapegoat during the wartime crises. In this book the author has tackled the challenge to expose the malicious intentions of the French government and also to show how Mata Hari had fallen prey to the then misogynic European society.

International or Local Ownership?: Security Sector Development in Post-Independent Kosovo

by Dr. Florian Qehaja

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International or Local Ownership? contributes to the debate on the concept of local ownership in post-conflict settings, and discussions on international relations, peacebuilding, security and development studies. It utilizes extensive data collection, including public opinion surveys conducted throughout the country, in order to introduce the concept of local ownership from a policy level towards academia. Empirical data on the relationship between international community and locals in the process of design, management and control of the security sector in the post-independent Kosovo represents one of the most intriguing examples of extensive international community involvement in a state-building project.

Qehaja explains why an excessive role from the international community, which offers no clear exit strategy, has led to the rejection of externally driven policies by local constituencies, finding no applicability in the context of Kosovo. It also shows how international involvement has led to a detachment of security policy from local reality, causing fragmentation and limited sustainability.

Florian Qehaja is currently the Director of Kosovar Centre for Security Studies (KCSS), one of the most prominent think tanks in the Western Balkans. He has over twelve years of experience in cooperating with leading international governmental and non-governmental organisations in Kosovo and the Western Balkans. Mr. Qehaja is author of several scientific and policy publications in the security field, and the recipient of prestigious Fulbright and OSI/Chevening scholarships.



Ukraine vs. Russia: Revolution, Democracy and War: Selected Articles and Blogs, 2010-2016

by Alexander J. Motyl

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Ukraine vs. Russia offers indispensable background knowledge and analysis on one of the most important issues of the day—Vladimir Putin’s war against democratic Ukraine. Alexander J. Motyl’s articles and blogs offer in-depth analysis as well as a running commentary on current events and historical controversies in both Russia and Ukraine—from the rise of Ukrainian dictator Viktor Yanukovych to the impending fall of Russian dictator Putin. Motyl discusses politics, society, culture, economics, history, language, and memory and shows how they relate to the Russo-Ukrainian War and to Western understanding—and misunderstanding—of Ukraine and Russia.

As Washington considers a policy shift toward Russia and Ukraine, Western policy¬makers and analysts would be well-advised to consult this important volume.

Alexander J. Motyl is professor of political science at Rutgers University-Newark. A specialist on Ukraine, Russia, and the USSR, and on nationalism, revolutions, empires, and theory, he is the author of Imperial Ends: The Decay, Collapse, and Revival of Empires; Revolutions, Nations, Empires: Conceptual Limits and Theoretical Possibilities; Dilemmas of Independence: Ukraine after Totalitarianism; Sovietology, Rationality, Nationality: Coming to Grips with Nationalism in the USSR; Will the Non Russians Rebel? State, Ethnicity, and Stability in the USSR; The Turn to the Right: The Ideological Origins and Development of Ukrainian Nationalism, 1919 1929, the editor of The Encyclopedia of Nationalism, and the co-editor of The Holodomor Reader: A Sourcebook on the Famine of 1932-1933 in Ukraine and The Great West Ukrainian Prison Massacre of 1941: A Sourcebook.


Israel’s Future Wars: Military and Political Aspects of Israel’s Coming Wars

by Ehud Eilam

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This book examines Israel’s possible future wars in the upcoming years. It analyzes the strategic background and the nature of operations of those wars and concentrates on feasible future battlefields of Israel in Iran, Lebanon, Syria, the Gaza Strip, the West Bank and Sinai.


“Eilam’s work provides valuable context to the political and military issues that may shape Israel’s future wars. His analysis helps us understand the complexity of the conditions surrounding potential future confrontations in the Mideast. This well-informed study is a must read for those who wish to learn more about the challenges and risks facing Israel.”
David A. Deptula, Lt Gen USAF (Ret.) Dean, The Mitchell Institute for Aerospace Studies


“Israel’s Future Wars is a remarkable work in the field, noteworthy for both its subject matter breadth, and its corollary command of very complex facts and materials. Each of the author’s chapters deals with a particular military threat to Israel, but Eilam still correctly understands the possible intersections and prospective synergies between them…There is no doubt that Israel’s Future Wars will quickly become essential reading for both academic strategists and Israel’s military policy-planners and makers. This recognition will be well-deserved.”
Louis René Beres, Emeritus Professor of International Law, Purdue University.

“Read this book if you are interested in the future of the Middle East as Dr. Ehud Eilam takes the reader through a fascinating tour of Israel’s possible conflict scenarios… The insightful book will take you into the future of the most volcanic region in the world.”
Dr. Thomas Parker worked for the U.S. government in the past thirty years. He currently teaches security studies at George Washington University.

“In “Israel’s Future Wars,” Ehud Eilam, a veteran analyst of Israel’s security and defense policy, provides readers with a glimpse into the future with an expert analysis of Israel’s possible military operations against Iran, Hamas, Hezbollah, the Syrian front, and Egypt. It is a must read for those interested in a better understanding of how Israel survives and thrives in one of the world’s most complicated threat environments.”
Matthew Kroenig is an Associate Professor in the Department of Government and School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University


“Israel’s Future Wars by Dr. Ehud Eilem is a compelling and thought-provoking discussion on the shape of the most likely wars or armed conflict Israel will plausibly face in the near future. Based on his extensive and exhaustive research and analysis Dr. Eilem has written an authoritative, comprehensive and fascinating book on the challenges Israel would face if it should go to war against a range of potential adversaries from terrorist groups such as Hezbollah and Hamas to Iran, Syria or Egypt or combinations thereof.
He combines his thorough research and analysis on the defense capabilities of Israel and the capabilities of its adversaries to create a highly believable and authoritative vision of what future wars in the Middle East could look like. This is also a useful book for military planners, policy makers and the concerned public.
As a starting point for defense planning the assessment of the future security environment is essential and Dr. Eilem’s assessments, worse case planning, and recommendations are important contributions to understanding and preparing for these threat scenarios.”
Guy B. Roberts, Colonel USMC (Ret.) Former NATO Deputy Assistant Secretary General


Iran: Who Is Really In Charge?

by Camille Verleuw, Introduction by Alain Bauer

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Born in a country with three official languages, and an acquaintance with Latin during high school, it was no surprise that author Camille Verleuw became interested in Indo-European linguistics, discovering the Persian language and its local Afghan or Tajik forms. Verleuw graduated from two schools of the Department of Letters, Translation & Communication of the Université Libre of Brussels (Belgium) before moving to the University of Teheran to specialize in iranistics while working as a writer for the French-language daily newspaper Le Journal de Téhéran. After the closure of the newspaper at the beginning of the Islamic Revolution in 1979, Verleuw worked as a translator, a correspondent for European media, a media officer and an expert on Iranian affairs, including Shia Islam. Verleuw also spent long periods in Afghanistan and Tajikistan.

iranThe present study is aimed at explaining the realities of a country which is only presented in the media for the sensational statements of some of its leaders or its deep involvement in the Middle East affairs. The image has been mostly negative for years, especially since the takeover of the American embassy in Tehran on November 4, 1979, although the Iranian clerics’ antagonism towards the United-States dates from the 1950s.

The recent signing of agreements between Iran and some Western countries carries many hopes for a restoration of better relations and a return to the international scene of a matured Iran. Many businessmen will head back to Tehran: the country is in fact extremely thirsty of procuring new technologies or materials to meet development capabilities in all areas. However, thirty-seven years of isolation has led Iran to become self-sufficient in many areas thanks to its young people who have never been forbidden to study in Western countries. The reader will be impressed by the intellectual level of the authorities as shown by the included biographies of the government members.

The land offers many opportunities, and this work highlights some of these areas. However, this study also cautions foreigners regarding their behavior and business opportunities while visiting Iran.

. The conference photography shows her as the lone woman. Secreted in the Semiramis Hotel, she and the other ‘forty thieves’ laid out policies whose failures (and Lawrence’s disillusionment) are well known.

Therein lies the tragedy of her life, perhaps more of a tragedy that than of Lawrence. Almost none of the undertakings to the Arabs to which she was an enthusiastic participant were realized. There were a number of these promises, although they were less publicized than those made in the famous McMahon letters. For example, the assurances at the 1916 durbar at Kuwait were equally dishonored: the shaikh of Kuwait received a CSI and Ibn Saud got the KCIE along with pledges that with the defeat of the Turks: “The dream of Arab unity … has been brought nearer fulfillment than dreams are wont to come, but the role of presiding genius has been recast.”

Instead of an Arabian viceregality that would justify the wonderful title of ‘Viceroys of the Gulf,’ or of a ‘final’ resolution of the region’s conflicts, British Imperial administration be- tween the world wars became a long and unsatisfactory interlude in which little was accomplished. Hobson remarks in Imperialism about the use of ‘masked worlds’ and an Imperial Genius for inconsistency: “Most of the men who have misled … have first been obliged to mislead themselves.” This was the case with Gertrude Bell, who committed suicide in 1926. After she and her friends departed the scene, the air went out if the balloon, and the ‘countervailing disadvantages’ of being misled became apparent to the Arabs. This little-known book is one key to heady days at Basra when the Middle East empire seemed likely.


The Peace Negotiations: A Personal Narrative

by Robert Lansing

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Robert Lansing (1864-1928) initially served the State Department as a lawyer and was known for his work on the Lansing-Ishii Agreement in 1917 with Japan over their changing relationship with China during Worpeaceld War I. He became the Secretary of State under Woodrow Wilson, and a member of the American Commission to Negotiate Peace after the close of World War I.

However, Lansing did not share the same vision for the League of Nations that Wilson did. He and Wilson had a bitter falling out, particularly when Wilson had a stroke, and Lansing called for Thomas Marshall, the Vice President, to assume presidential duties. Edith Wilson, the wife of Woodrow, requested Lansing resign, and he did. He went back to practicing law in the private sector until he died in 1928. This work by Lansing focuses on the World War I peace negotiations and highlights his very different perspective of how events unfolded, suggesting alternative actions, and gives a fascinating glimpse at secretive international negotiations behind the scenes.

This edition is dedicated to Bruce Rich, keen scholar of international relations.


Letters of General John Forbes relating to the Expedition Against Fort Duquesne

by Gen John Forbes, Compiled by Irene Stewart

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General John Forbes (1707-1759) was a British Army officer most known for serving during the French and Indian War. The letters contained in this volume are from the Forbes Expedition he led, which was ultimately successful in capturing the French-held Fort Duquesne. The fort was established in 1754, located in what is Pittsburgh today. Ultimately, Fort Du Quesne (as it was originally known) forbeswould be destroyed by the British and replaced by Fort Pitt. The site was a highly trafficked trading post and in a strategic location, which resulted in it being constantly under attack. The Forbes Expedition took place in 1758, with the goal of capturing the fort. Forbes led somewhere between 6,000-8,000 soldiers, but had difficulty as he was quite ill with dysentery, so he relied on Lt. Col. Henry Boquet, his second in command. It was a very slow moving process, since the army had to construct roads and traverse the Allegheny Front. This inclusive collection of letters highlights military, medical and other facets of an important episode in American history.

The new edition is dedicated to James Denton, enthusiast for American history and publisher of note.


Two Years in Kurdistan: Experiences of a Political Officer, 1918-1920

by W. R. Hay, Introduction by Paul Rich

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Kurdistan does not exist as a country, yet it certainly does exist as a nation. A people of great number and antiquity, united by a shared heritage, the Kurds are primarily scattered over five countries—Turley, Iran, Iraq, Syria and Russia. For a great many years they have played the unenviable role of pawns in the Middle East’s turbulent power struggles, manipulated by governments using Kurdish troubles as a means of outmaneuvering their opponents.  

William Rupert Hay was a British political officer who was in charge of the largely Kurdish district of Arbil in northern Iraq from 1918 to 1920. He was given the task of establishing and maintaining British rule in the area in the wake of the invasion of the First World War.  

Two Years in Kurdistan is a detailed personal account of Hay’s time in Arbil. It traces his progress from the initial warm welcome given by the Kurds (who were, in the wake of a war, living in terrible conditions and believed that British rule heralded the dawning of a new and better age) through disillusionment at stiffer taxes, tighter laws, and the failure of the British to significantly improve the quality of life to the eventual rebellion of 1920. Through all these events, Hay paints a vivid portrait of the people and places of northern Iraq and many extraordinary experiences, whether it be hunting the outlaw Nuri Bahil (“a patriot and a hero…a sort of Robin Hood”), conversing with the gregarious tribal chief Hama Agha (who claimed to be 130 and fathered a child when 90) or describing attempts on his own life.  

The most important aspect of the book is that it explains the feelings held towards the region by a man who, many years later, was, as British Political Resident, to play a crucial role in shaping the modern Gulf. As Hay noted in 1921, with remarkable relevance to today, “Poor people, I am afraid they must have been bitterly disappointed of the high hopes for the future which they entertained.”


The Middle East: New Order or Disorder?

Edited by Mohammed A. Aman, Ph.D. and Mary Jo Aman, MLIS

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This book brings together edited papers contributed to this volume by presenters at the most recent Middle East Dialogue (MED Conference held annually in Washington, DC, and sponsored by the Policy Studies Organization (PSO), the Digest of Middle East Studies (DOMES), and supporting universities and organizations such as the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, the American Public University System, the Next Century Foundation, Capital Communications Group, among others. Additional papers were invited from scholars and experts in Middle East and North African studies. Collectively, these contributions aim to enrich the literature and dialogue on issues affecting policy, diplomacy, and socioeconomic studies dealing with this volatile region of the world. Collectively, the authors of the book’s 21 chapters bring to the reader a wealth of expertise and contributions to the broader scholarship on the Middle East, and the much hoped-for understanding and solutions to the region’s conflicts.

Mohammed M. Aman, Ph.D. is Professor and former Dean of the School of Information Studies and Interim Dean of the School of Education at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. He is the founder and Editor-in-Chief of the peer-reviewed journal Digest of Middle East Studies (DOMES) and the online journal, Middle East Media & Book Reviews (MEMBR). Professor Aman is the author of more than 200 articles, book chapters and is author or editor of 15 books, among his latest are Post-Arab Spring: Review of the Literature; The Middle East Conflicts & Reforms; New Directions in the Middle East. Professor Aman consults for the USAID, USIS,  UNESCO, UNIDO, and UNDP. Among the national and international honors he received: The P. N. Kaula Gold Medal Award, The American Library Association’s OCLC—James A. Humphrey Award, the Wisconsin Library Association, and the Association of Library & Information Science Education, along with honors by governments and universities in Egypt, Libya, Kenya, Kuwait, among others.

Mary Jo Aman, MLIS is Associate Editor of the Digest of Middle East Studies (DOMES); Middle East Media & Book Reviews (MEMBR); Post-Arab Spring: Review of the Literature; The Middle East Conflicts & Reforms; and New Directions in the Middle East. Ms. Aman has also served on the boards of such organizations as the International Board of Books for Young People (IBBY); the Wisconsin Library Association, and has taught at St. John’s University in New York, Cardinal Stritch
University, and UWM in Milwaukee, WI. She is the recipient of the Wisconsin State Senate Recognition Award; Citation of Merit from the Milwaukee Board of Supervisors; and the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Ernest Spaights Award for Outstanding Contributions to UWM.

Captain John Smith and His Critics

by Charles Poindexter

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Though he lived over 500 years ago, Captain John Smith’s life is still much discussed. He was born in 1580 in England, and at sixteen, after his father’s death, Smith set off for a life at sea. He fought under various flags and found himself knighted by the Prince of Transylvania, but later captured and sold as a slave. He would escape and return to England by 1604. Two years later he was on an expedition set to colonize the New World under the Virginia Company of London. The journey took over four months before they first landed in Virginia. In that time, Smith was charged with mutiny and nearly executed. They would later settle in Jamestown, which was disastrous because of the swampy region, disease, insufficient food, and generous malnutrition. Smith spent a great deal of time navigating for food what is now known as the Chesapeake Bay area, and developed detailed maps as a result. It 1609 as a result of a injury he returned to England for medical treatment. In 1614 he sailed for the United States again, but to what is now known as New England, creating a map of the region that replaced the Native American place names with those suggested by Charles I. In 1615, on a second attempt to return, he was briefly captured by French pirates, escaped and then remained in England until his passing in 1631. His life continues to be a source of great scholarly controversy, particularly around his relationship to Pocahontas. This seminal lecture by Charles Poindexter illustrates some of these points of contention.

Zigzagging: An American Female Nurse’s Experiences During WWI

by Isabel Anderson

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Isabel Anderson was born Isabel Weld Perkins (1876-1948). Though a wealthy socialite, she wrote numerous books including On the Move, The Spell of the Hawaiian Islands and the Philippines, Circling Africa and The Spell of Japan. Her favored genres included children’s literature, accounts of travel and family memoirs such as Under the Black Horse Flag, and The Letters and Journals of General Nicholas Longworth Anderson, a collection of papers from her father-in-law.

While in Italy in 1896, Isabel had met Larz Anderson, an American diplomat. They married in Boston a year later, and enjoyed a life of world travel. Larz served in a variety of diplomatic roles, while Isabel wrote a great deal. The two left behind several estates, a memorial bridge, and collections of automobiles and bonsais, quite symbolic of their life pursuits.

Zigzagging recalls Isabel’s efforts during World War I as a volunteer for the Red Cross. For her work, she earned the Croix de Guerre, a French military honor for heroic actions.

This new edition is dedicated to Dr. Robert Enelow.

Who is the Enemy?: The Revolution in Terrorism Affairs and the Ways to Understand It

by Alain Bauer

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BookCoverImage-2Few people have the advantages that Alain Bauer possesses in providing an overview of the current world security crisis. He is the ultimate example of “been there, done that”. Welcome in the inner circles of a half dozen countries, his opinions are eagerly sought as the efforts to cope with terrorism at times seem like chasing an escalating train that is all too rapidly pulling away from the station. With a wry humor he has avoided the temptation to say that he told us so, considerably in advance of the current pandemonium. But he did tell us so, and this nuanced consideration of how the current and progressively worsening situation should be viewed at least gives us a start on rethinking the solutions.Those who know him also know that he is an ecumenical and tolerant thinker who balances the demands of protection with the tradition of civil rights. He is not an alarmist but a realist. This essay then provides a trusted overview of a dilemma, how to react to one of the most serious threats to Western democracy in living memory. The French experience has much we can appreciate. It’s examination could not come at a more needed time, and deserves the widest possible circulation and a permanent place is the literature of the unhappy challenges we now face.

Paul Rich
President, Policy Studies Organization

The Story of Secret Service

by Richard Wilmer Rowan, Introduction by Rahima Schwenkbeck

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Few works attempt to be as ambitious as Richard Wilmer Rowan’s The Story of Secret Service. Rowan packs in thirty-three centuries of world history in this volume, tracing a long histBookCoverImage-18ory of espionage and its impact. The history of espionage is a particularly difficult history to uncover because of its clandestine nature. Many thrilling stories are lost to time. However, due in part to Rowan’s research and extensive, worldwide ties to sources, he is able to craft a chronological narrative full of anecdotes and recovered histories. Readers gain a new understanding not only of how espionage played a significant, but well hidden, role in shaping history, but also of unique developments in architecture, weaponry and communications, that allowed spies to succeed.

Natural Gas as an Instrument of Russian State Power

by Ion A. Iftimie

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“Since the Cold War, Russia has been perceived as a broken nation that no longer represents a threat to the North Atlantic Alliance. This book emphasizes that Russia overcame this major vulnerability by developing the capacity to use unilateral economic sanctions in the form of gas pricing and gas disruptions against many European North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) member states. It agrees with many scholars and politics alike who fear that Russia will leverage its monopoly of natural gas to gain political concessions. The author suggests it is only a matter of time until Russia will use natural gas as an instrument of coercion to disrupt NATO’s decision making process.”

-Douglas C. Lovelace, Jr.
Director, Strategic Studies Institute

A former Intelligence Officer, Ion A. Iftimie is an energy security expert with over one decade of successfully advising senior military, business, and government leaders on Eurasian natural gas industry and related national security issues.

Bugle Echoes: A Collection of the Poetry of the Civil War

Edited by Francis F. Browne

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Bugle Echoes offers a vast collection of poetry illustrating the lived experiences of the Civil War. The collection was edited by Francis Fisher Browne (1843-1913) who fought in the Civil War as a soldier in the Forty-Sixth Massachusetts Volunteers. His father, William Goldsmith Browne, was a poet and printer in Massachusetts. After the war, it was unsurprising when Browne pursued a literary career as editor of several Chicago-based journals, including a revival of The Dial, a celebrated transcendental periodical.

Browne personally knew Walt Whitman, John Greenleaf Whittier, James Russell Lowell and other eminent literary figures, many of whom shared with him the trials of the Civil War and are featured in this volume. When he died, John Muir said, “Francis Fisher Browne, or Browne the Beloved as I like to call him, was one of the finest and rarest men I ever knew.”