Resilient Hospitals Handbook: Strengthening Healthcare and Public Health Resilience in Advance of a Prolonged and Widespread Power Outage

byCharles “Chuck” Manto, Earl Motzer PhD, James Terbush MD

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A number of high-impact threats to critical infrastructure can result in a regional or nationwide months-long power outage, making it unlikely for timely outside help to arrive. Hospitals are encouraged to gain the capacity to make and store enough power on-site to operate in island mode indefinitely without outside sources of power or fuel and protect on-site capabilities from threats that could impact regional commercial power systems. This handbook outlines challenges and opportunities to solve these problems so hospitals, healthcare facilities, and other resources might become more resilient. From the Second Goal of the 2015 National Space Weather Strategy: http://www.dhs.gov/national-space-weather-strategy
• “Complete an all-hazards power outage response and recovery plan: —for extreme space weather event and the long-term loss of electric power and cascading effects on other critical infrastructure sectors.
• Other low-frequency, high-impact events are also capable of causing long-term power outages on a regional or national scale.
• The plan must include the Whole Community.”

From the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency
https://www.sbir.gov/sbirsearch/detail/736859
• “An electromagnetic (EM) attack (nuclear electromagnetic pulse [EMP] or non-nuclear EMP [e.g., high-power microwave, HPM]) has the potential to degrade or shut down portions of the electric power grid important to DoD.
• Restoring the commercial grid from the still functioning regions may not be possible or could take weeks or months. Significant elements of the DCI require uninterrupted power for prolonged periods to perform time-critical missions (e.g., sites hardened to MIL-STD-188-125-1).
• To ensure these continued operations, DCI sites must be able to function as a microgrid that can operate in both grid-connected and intentional island-mode (grid-isolated).

 

The Capture and Execution of John Brown: A Tale of Martyrdom

by Elijah Avey

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Slavery was truly an awful institution that, even today in its legacy, continues to plague the United States. During its height, abolitionists “waved the bloody flag” and vigorously protested to end it, though it took plunging the nation into the Civil War to result in it being finally eradicated. One person that took a powerful stand against “the peculiar institution” was John Brown. Though Brown had led forces against pro-slavery opponents earlier, it wasn’t until 1859 when he grabbed the national stage by leading forces, particularly enslaved African Americans, at Harper’s Ferry. The movement was ultimately unsuccessful, and Brown was captured and tried for treason against the Commonwealth of Virginia (before Harper’s Ferry was part of West Virginia). He was hanged despite vocal opposition from his supporters. Yet, his work as an abolitionist created ripples of tension that significantly fueled the drift towards war. This work is written by Elijah Avery, who offers a detailed, eyewitness account of the events, and contextualizes John Brown’s life.

This new edition is dedicated to the efforts of the American Public University System to preserve the artifacts of historic Charles Town in West Virginia with its associations with John Brown.

 

The Prisoners of 1776: A Relic of the Revolution

by Rev. R. Livesey

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Most of this work is not by Rev. R. Livesey, but rather by Charles Herbert, who was made prisoner by the English during the Revolutionary War. The journal begins around November 15, 1776, shortly after Herbert was captured while on the brigantine, Dolton. While imprisoned, he suffered from smallpox, but recovered and then was sent to Old Mill Prison, located in Plymouth, England, in 1777. He was held there until March 19, 1779, when he was exchanged for English prisoners. Herbert tried to escape many times, and even succeeded once, but he, along with a majority of other prisoners, were recaptured. After his release, Herbert went on to be married to Holly Butler on November 8, 1783, and earned a living as a block-maker, until he died at the age of 49 on September 4, 1808. The journal was written in code and had to be translated. Special Collections at the University of Delaware Library in Newark, Delaware has archival holdings on this work.

 

Issues in Maritime Cyber Security

Editors: Dr. Joe DiRenzo III, Dr. Nicole K. Drumhiller, Dr. Fred S. Roberts


The world relies on maritime commerce to move exceptionally large portions of goods, services, and people. Collectively this effort comprises the Maritime Transportation System or MTS. A major component of this daunting multifaceted enterprise are cyber networks, and the infrastructure they control. From the complex programs managing the loading and unloading of containers to waiting trucks, to the global navigation systems onboard vessels, to the hydraulic valves designed to protect spills into waterways that are located and controlled by cyber systems within chemical, water/wastewater, or petroleum plants, the MTS is becoming increasingly automated.

The impact of the cyber element on the international MTS is significant. Yet, with the clear advantages this brings, come vulnerabilities, and challenges. Researchers have demonstrated that it is possible to remotely take control of a vessel by spoofing its GPS. The news has reported attacks that shut down a floating oil rig by tilting it. The electronic positioning software systems on ships are vulnerable to attacks that could modify les and charts, causing potential for serious damage. The complexity of the problem of making our MTS safe from cyber attack is daunting and the need for all stakeholders in both government (at all levels) and private industry to be involved in cyber security is more significant than ever as the use of the MTS continues to grow.

While there is literature about the maritime transportation system, and about cyber security, to date there is very little literature on this converging area. This pioneering book is beneficial to a variety of audiences, as a text book in courses looking at risk analysis, national security, cyber threats, or

maritime policy; as a source of research problems ranging from the technical area to policy; and for practitioners in government and the private sector interested in a clear explanation of the array of cyber risks and potential cyber-defense issues impacting the maritime community.

About the Editors: Dr. Joe DiRenzo III is a retired Coast Guard Officer. Dr. Nicole K. Drumhiller is the Program Director of Intelligence Studies at American Military University. Dr. Fred S. Roberts is Director of the Department of Homeland Security University Center of Excellence CCICADA, based at Rutgers University.


Release date: July 2017

Pacific Hurtgen: The American Army in Northern Luzon, 1945

by Robert M. Young

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Too often in war many of its campaigns are forgotten. One such forgotten campaign occurred in the Philippines during the last year of World War II. American Army units fought a bitter battle against dug-in, fanatical Japanese soldiers on the Philippine island of Luzon. It was a campaign that need not have happened. American forces throughout the Pacific were on Japan’s doorstep but due to the immense power and personal desires of a singular commander, General Douglas MacArthur, the Philippines would once again become a major theater of the war. It did not bring the defeat of Japan any closer but did leave many thousands of American soldiers dead and tens of thousands wounded. In Europe, the American Army’s most wasteful campaign occurred in the Hurtgen Forest in 1944. Luzon would be the Pacific Hurtgen.

About the Author 
Dr. Robert Young received a B.A. from St. John’s University, an M.A. from Brooklyn College, and a Ph.D in Military History from the C.U.N.Y. Graduate Center. He is currently an Associate Professor at American Military University as well as a New York City High School History teacher. He is the author of numerous articles on World War II and post-Cold War conflicts. A New York City native and United States Army veteran, he currently lives in Long Island with his wife and two children.

 

 

One Little Orchid: Mata Hari: A Marginal Voice

by Sanusri Bhattacharya

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“Her father was a subject of the Netherlands, and her mother was a Japanese. He died when she was an infant, and in order to protect her from the dangers which beset a young girl of mixed blood in the East, her mother fled from Java with her when she was three years old, and entered Burma. There, to further protect her, she pledged her to celibacy, and placed her in a Buddhist temple to learn dancing. After a dance at a great Buddhist festival in Burma, when she was almost fourteen years old, she saw a British officer and fell in love with him. It was her first love affair. She managed to escape from the temple and joined him … Finally they married. Two children, a boy and a girl, were born of their union … It is certain that she did not love her husband … The climax came when a maid whom she had beaten and discharged caused one of her gardeners to poison her infant son … She took a revolver, and, walking into the garden where the man was working, shot him dead.”
[“Dutch Dancer Spy.” The Southland Times. New Zealand. November 14, 1917.]

“Parisians have become very suspicious of late, but the surprise was general, nevertheless, when they discovered that their exotic favorite, Mata Hari, the Hindoo dancer, was a German spy. At the age of 17 she married a German who had obtained Dutch nationality in order to mask his spying work. The marriage was rather in the nature of a formal business transaction, but this did not prevent the ex-German officer from brutally ill-treating his young wife, whom he wounded on one occasion by a pistol shot. Nevertheless, she entered into the spy system with zest, became duly registered and paid, amused and delighted Paris for some years with her audacious performances, became acquainted with various highly-paid officials and politicians and found means, it is said, to make known to the Germans some of the most important French plans in the first months of the war, and subsequently informed them accurately of the departure of transports.”
[“Combing Out Hun Spies in France.” The Times. London. February 21, 1918.]

These are examples of wartime propaganda against Mata Hari that had been making the rounds in contemporary print media, which continued even after her execution. Most of these conspicuous falsities had been carefully promulgated by France in order to use her as a scapegoat during the wartime crises. In this book the author has tackled the challenge to expose the malicious intentions of the French government and also to show how Mata Hari had fallen prey to the then misogynic European society.

 

 

International or Local Ownership?: Security Sector Development in Post-Independent Kosovo

by Dr. Florian Qehaja

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International or Local Ownership? contributes to the debate on the concept of local ownership in post-conflict settings, and discussions on international relations, peacebuilding, security and development studies. It utilizes extensive data collection, including public opinion surveys conducted throughout the country, in order to introduce the concept of local ownership from a policy level towards academia. Empirical data on the relationship between international community and locals in the process of design, management and control of the security sector in the post-independent Kosovo represents one of the most intriguing examples of extensive international community involvement in a state-building project.

Qehaja explains why an excessive role from the international community, which offers no clear exit strategy, has led to the rejection of externally driven policies by local constituencies, finding no applicability in the context of Kosovo. It also shows how international involvement has led to a detachment of security policy from local reality, causing fragmentation and limited sustainability.

Florian Qehaja is currently the Director of Kosovar Centre for Security Studies (KCSS), one of the most prominent think tanks in the Western Balkans. He has over twelve years of experience in cooperating with leading international governmental and non-governmental organisations in Kosovo and the Western Balkans. Mr. Qehaja is author of several scientific and policy publications in the security field, and the recipient of prestigious Fulbright and OSI/Chevening scholarships.