New Crimes and New Solutions: International Journal of Criminology

New Crimes and New Solutions: International Journal of Criminology

Edited by Alain Bauer

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Is using the humanities and social sciences (psychology, sociology,law, etc.) to understand the crime, the criminal, the victim, criminality, and society’s reaction to crime ascience? A crime is the unique combination of a perpetrator, a victim, and a set of circumstances. Its individual and quantitative analysis requires scientific methods and specific intellectual and technical abilities.

Emile Durkheim emphasizes that “[…] A number of acts can be observed, all with the external characteristic that once accomplished, they provoke this particular reaction from society known as punishment. We make of them a group sui generis, on which we impose a common rubric. We call any punished act a crime and make crime thus defined the focus of a dedicated science: criminology.”

History of the San Francisco Committee of Vigilance of 1851

by Mary Floyd Williams Ph.D.

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BookCoverImage-9Mary Floyd Williams gives a detailed account of the San Francisco Committee of Vigilance formed in 1851 (it was later reincarnated in 1856. Although the Committee, formed by a group of vigilantes, lasted only about three months, they were responsible for the hanging of at least eight accused and forced others to leave California. The offenses were not always grave—one person was hung by the Committee for stealing a safe from an office. The Committee circumvented due process by bringing suspects to their own offices instead of the police. Dr. Williams details the initial development of the organization and explains how rampant crime in San Francisco led to the formation of vigilante justice, and the societal repercussions.

W.T. Sherman, the militia commander at the time, subsequently a Civil War hero, wrote:

As [the vigilantes] controlled the press, they wrote their own history, and the world generally gives them the credit of having purged San Francisco of rowdies and roughs; but their success has given great stimulus to a dangerous principle, that would at any time justify the mob in seizing all the power of government; and who is to say that the Vigilance Committee may not be composed of the worst, instead of the best, elements of a community? Indeed, in San Francisco, as soon as it was demonstrated that the real power had passed from the City Hall to the committee room, the same set of bailiffs, constables, and rowdies that had infested the City Hall were found in the employment of the “Vigilantes.”

Who is the Enemy?: The Revolution in Terrorism Affairs and the Ways to Understand It

by Alain Bauer

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BookCoverImage-2Few people have the advantages that Alain Bauer possesses in providing an overview of the current world security crisis. He is the ultimate example of “been there, done that”. Welcome in the inner circles of a half dozen countries, his opinions are eagerly sought as the efforts to cope with terrorism at times seem like chasing an escalating train that is all too rapidly pulling away from the station. With a wry humor he has avoided the temptation to say that he told us so, considerably in advance of the current pandemonium. But he did tell us so, and this nuanced consideration of how the current and progressively worsening situation should be viewed at least gives us a start on rethinking the solutions.Those who know him also know that he is an ecumenical and tolerant thinker who balances the demands of protection with the tradition of civil rights. He is not an alarmist but a realist. This essay then provides a trusted overview of a dilemma, how to react to one of the most serious threats to Western democracy in living memory. The French experience has much we can appreciate. It’s examination could not come at a more needed time, and deserves the widest possible circulation and a permanent place is the literature of the unhappy challenges we now face.

Paul Rich
President, Policy Studies Organization

The Story of Secret Service

by Richard Wilmer Rowan, Introduction by Rahima Schwenkbeck

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Few works attempt to be as ambitious as Richard Wilmer Rowan’s The Story of Secret Service. Rowan packs in thirty-three centuries of world history in this volume, tracing a long histBookCoverImage-18ory of espionage and its impact. The history of espionage is a particularly difficult history to uncover because of its clandestine nature. Many thrilling stories are lost to time. However, due in part to Rowan’s research and extensive, worldwide ties to sources, he is able to craft a chronological narrative full of anecdotes and recovered histories. Readers gain a new understanding not only of how espionage played a significant, but well hidden, role in shaping history, but also of unique developments in architecture, weaponry and communications, that allowed spies to succeed.

New Frontiers in Criminology

Edited by Alain Bauer

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Criminology owes a great deal as a discipline to the eighteenth century social philosophers, particularly those like Cesare Beccaria who partly built some of their arguments on social contract theory. Certainly some of the aspects of the debate over free will date from then. The publishing of Beccaria’s Dei Delitti e Della Pane in 1764 began a not yet concluded controversy over protecting society whilBookCoverImage-6e redeeming the perpetrator.

Inevitably interdisciplinary in nature, criminology has not always been welcome in the university. Despite the prominence of Pierre Paul Broca, Paul Topinard, and Emile Durkheim in laying foundations that helped to inspire the development of the theory of the discipline, France has been surprisingly slow in providing tertiary support.

Spies I Knew

by Marthe McKenna

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Born in Flanders, Marthe Cnockaert McKenna (1892-1986) was recruited in 1915, during World War I, to an Anglo-Belgian espionage ring. Her cover was as a nurse, and the Germans awarded her the Iron Cross for her hospital work. After a period as a double agent she was apprehended by them and sentenced to death. The sentence was not carried out and she was released from prison at the Armistice in 1918.

Spies I Knew COVER FRONT ONLYCited for heroism by Winston Churchill, she received the French and Belgian Legions of Honour. The star Madeline Carroll portrayed her in Victor Saville’s 1933 thriller, I Was A Spy. She became a British subject and during World War II the Nazis included her in The Black Book of leaders to be arrested when they invaded England.

This book appeared in 1934 and was perhaps her most forthright and psychologically interesting work, showing signs of the influence and collaboration of “Jock” McKenna, the British Army officer she had married.

Take a look at the original dust jacket back-flap.

Crime 3.0: The Rise of Global Crime in the XXIst Century

Crime 3.0 COVER FRONT ONLY

by Alain Bauer

with a forward by Paul Rich

Alain Bauer argues that we need, with considerable immediacy, to press the formal study of crime in the academy, and that more resources need to be channeled towards that purpose. The approach in universities, if they do deign to study the subject, is often relegated to adjuncts and regarded by the more established departments with disdain. Given the prejudices of conventional scholars towards the subject, it is no wonder that the response to crime has been inept, and grows increasingly inadequate, considering the highly adaptive nature of crime and its implications in a globalized world in the XXIst Century.

Alain Bauer is Professor of Criminology at the French National Conservatory for Arts and Crafts (Paris), and Senior Research Fellow at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice (New York) and the University of Law and Political Science of China (Beijing).

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